Last Revised: 12/03/2016
In Order to Keep Answers Brief only DCR references will be provided
You should have a DCR available for reference.
Indoor Rules (DCR), Casebook, Interpretations The Official Rules for Download
[accordion auto_height=”false” ui_theme=”ui-smoothness” collapsible=”1″ active=”false”][accordion_panel title=’FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS ABOUT OFFICIATING
Want To Submit A Question? Open Me For Details!!!
‘]Used to answer Frequently Asked Questions about Rules and Officiating
If you have a question please submit to HOA Officials Chair
Send Question
*-*-*-*-*[/accordion_panel][accordion_panel title=’Revised 02/15/2017 – How Many Points in a Set?‘]All non-deciding sets in USAV play end at 25 or more points (win by 2).
All deciding set are played to 15 starting at 0-0.
All one set playoffs (tie-breakers) should be played to at least the same number of points in pool play non-deciding sets.
See details for sets playing less than 25 points, Example and Score Sheet instructions.

If a set is scheduled to play less than 25 points the set must start with sufficient points to conclude the set at 25.

Format: Pool Play 21 point sets. Elimination play 25 point sets.

Pool Play:
Score starts at 4-4.
Draw a T-Bar through points 1-4
The score sheet is now ready.

One Set Playoffs:
Tournament Director’s Option
21 point set (start at 4-4), switch sides at 15 or
25 point set (start at 0-0) switch sides at 13.

HOA recommends that one set playoffs be played to the same number of points as elimination play non-deciding sets.
*-*-*-*-*[/accordion_panel][accordion_panel title=’Revised 01/18/2017 – 2016-2017 JERSEYS 101 (NEW RULES)
POSTED 11/10/2016


More Information can be found Resources page under the Officiating tab
(Revised 01/18/2017) 2016-17 Season Uniform Requirements
01/18/2017 – Added Club Name/Team Name/Logo Placement guidelines

A new term for this season IN THE MARGIN
In The Margin used to refer to any LEGAL jersey or LEGAL combination of jerseys
(libero and regular players) which may be permitted by one referee and not another.
Generally involves number placement, contrast of numbers on a jersey,
contrast of jerseys (libero/regular players).
If match referee A permits In The Margin jersey(s) to play, OK.
If match referee B does not permit In The Margin jersey(s) to play, Equally OK!
HOA head referees will not second guess or overturn a match referee’s Judgement.

LEGAL used to indicate whether any jersey/uniform top or combinations
(Solid-Colored or Multi-Colored) is allowable, by rule, for USAV competition.
DCR Rule 4.3 Equipment note: USAV 4.3.1, USAV 4.3.3, USAV, USAV
Number Placement
Centered horizontally and vertically
ON CHEST NOT STOMACH!!! — CHEST – Neck to Sternum
(rule of thumb – center of number above sternum)

On UPPER back

The Libero(s) must wear a uniform which clearly contrasts with the rest of the team.

If there is any question about legality or compliance of a jersey/uniform top please contact the Region Officials Chair ha.officials.chair@hoavb.org
*-*-*-*-*[/accordion_panel][accordion_panel title=’12/05/2016 – Are plastic “spacers” used to replace pierced jewelry legal?’]YES!USA Volleyball Indoor Rules Casebook

Pictures of some legal “plastic spacers

4.27 A player has removed a nose piercing and replaced it with a small plastic “spacer” so that the jewelry may be quickly replaced after the match.
Ruling: For all competition, a plastic “spacer” may be used to replace jewelry while the player participates in the match.
Reference: USAV 4.5.1

4.28 A player is wearing monofilament line through an ear piercing.
Ruling: For all competition, monofilament line, thread, or string looped through a piercing hole is not legal. However, a straight piece of line, knotted at both ends, would be considered legal.
Reference: USAV 4.5
*-*-*-*-*[/accordion_panel][accordion_panel title=’12/03/2016 – Career Officials 2016-17 Technique Changes‘]PRIMARILY FOR CAREER OFFICIALS

For Change of Courts between Sets/Court Switch in the Deciding Set
• Begin the signal with your arms straight down by your sides; hands in fists.
Bring your arms upward with the right arm going in front of you
and the left arm going behind you; both arms should be stopping at the waist.
For those of you who work collegiate volleyball, this is the same
technique used in that rules set.

Substitutions From Each Team in the Same Dead Ball Period
• The second referee whistles one substitution request and
then authorizes the substitute(s) for one team to enter the court;
Then confirms with the scorer that everything has been recorded on the score sheet.
• The second referee then whistles the substitution request for the other team and
follows the same procedure.
The technique change is for the first referee
No matter how many substitutions in one dead ball period,
the first referee always shows the substitution signal Only Once.
*-*-*-*-*[/accordion_panel][accordion_panel title=’02/27/2016 – As an Official, How should I deal with Disruptive Fan Behavior‘]NEVER ENGAGE WITH THE SPECTATOR
Fan Behavior Rule Amendment and Sanction
Coaches of Officiating Teams and Career Officials should never engage spectators.
Direct all responses to the captain and coach of the spectator’s team.
Most times it is obvious which is the spectator’s team.
If the team can be identified, apply the sanctions accordingly.
If the team cannot be identified, suspend play immediately and send a member of your work team to bring the tournament/site/court manager to the court.
*-*-*-*-*[/accordion_panel][accordion_panel title=’01/26/2016 – On the Line-Up Sheet
A Libero is listed in a Libero box and as a starting player. What do I do?
‘]EX. On the line-up sheet #7 is in a Libero box
and as a starting player (I-VI boxes)

#7 must play as the Libero and the team
must use a regular substitution to replace #7 in the regular rotation!

USAV Casebook
Case 19.04

The coach submits the team’s starting line-up and has #11 listed as both the starter in position 1 and one of the Liberos.
After the line-up has been accepted by the scorer, #11 may only play as a Libero for the set/match. A “phantom” substitution must be made for #11 in position 1. However, the second referee and scorer could have prevented this situation when the line-up was submitted by asking the coach or captain to correct the error before recording the line-up on the score sheet.
USAV 19.1.1
*-*-*-*-*[/accordion_panel][accordion_panel title=’01/26/2016 – 2015-2017 Rule Clarification-(Net Violation & Centerline)‘]2015-2017 Net and Centerline Faults Clarified.
BIG CHANGE from 2014-2015 season!!!
The entire net is considered (NOT JUST THE TOP BAND!!!)
when determining a net fault!!!

What is a net fault?
Contact with the net that interferes with play.
DCR 11.3.1 – DCR 11.4.4
Examples of some net faults

  • Touching the net outside the antennas is not a fault
    (except for Rule 9.1.3 — assisted hit)
  • Touching the net between the antennas or the antenna during his/her action of playing the ball. In order to be playing the ball, the ball must be there!!!
    (ex: A right side block may touch net and may not be at fault if the ball is set to the left side.)
  • Taking support from the net simultaneously with playing the ball (ex: leaning on the net while settting)
  • Creating an advantage over the opponent (ex: pulling the net down to lower it while hitting
  • Making actions which hinder an opponent’s legitimate attempt to play the ball.(ex: deflecting a ball on the opponent’s side by letting the net hit the player’s hands)

When is crossing the centerline a fault?
Two issues to consider

  • Interference: Preventing or hindering an opponent from legitimately playing the ball
  • Safety Hazard: Presenting a safety hazard for the opponents

DCR USAV 11.2.2
If the encroaching body part is in contact or directly above the centerline consider only interference
If the encroaching body part is completely across the centerline consider both interference and safety hazard
*-*-*-*-*[/accordion_panel][accordion_panel title=’01/29/2015 – Must a Libero Sit Out One Completed Rally
before the Next Libero Replacement’]YES In most cases –

2. A Penalty causes the team to rotate and the Libero moves to position 4 (front row)

3. The Acting Libero becomes unable to play, making the rally incomplete

*-*-*-*-*[/accordion_panel][accordion_panel title=’01/20/2015 – Can I use 0,1,2 Liberos per set???’]YES – USAV 19.1.1

2 Liberos per set
Must be designated on lineup sheet prior to start of first set
Cannot be changed during the match

0, 1 Libero per set
0 or 1 Libero must be designated on lineup sheet for the first set
Cannot decide to use 2 liberos for remaining sets
May use a different player for each set
May decide to use no libero for any set

*-*-*-*-*[/accordion_panel][accordion_panel title=’01/06/2015 – Are Numbers 01-09 Legal???’]NO!
USAV 4.3.3: The players’ jerseys must be numbered
in a permanent manner from 1 to 99. Duplicate numbers are not allowed.

USA Volleyball Indoor Rules Casebook
4.08 A team’s uniform numbers 1 through 9 are printed on the jerseys
as “01”, “02”, “03”, etc.
Ruling Zero may not be the first digit of a uniform number.
Uniform numbers 1 through 9 must be formed as a single-digit number.
Likewise, “00” is not a legal number.

Reference: USAV 4.3.3
*-*-*-*-*[/accordion_panel][accordion_panel title=’Is It Legal To Wear Jewelry?‘]For Adults
Jewelry which may cause an injury or give an artificial advantage to the player are prohibited
For Juniors
Absolutely no jewelry may be worn.
Religious or medical medallions must be removed from any chains and sewn or taped under the uniform.
Do not tape over anything. Take it off!
Please tell everyone.
*-*-*-*-*[/accordion_panel][accordion_panel title=’HOA Serving Rules for Court Step-In for 10,11,12 & Under Competition‘]In 12, 11, 10 & Under Competition, may servers step into the court to serve?
YES: For all Open, Silver and Bronze competition within the HOA Region.
This is no longer optional
In Open competition, the rule applies to all teams regardless of Team Level (Gold, Silver, Bronze)
HOA is allowing 12 and under players to serve from inside the end line by as much as 2 meters (6 feet 6 inches).
This allow servers the opportunity to have more successful serves.
A line must be drawn/taped 2 meters from the endline to indicate the service fault line
NO: For all Gold competition within the HOA Region
All Gold HOA events, National Qualifier and National Championship competition the service must be completed in the service zone.
*-*-*-*-*[/accordion_panel][accordion_panel title=’Which Ball is Legal for 12 and Under Competition’]USAV 3.1 and USAV 3.2
While the rules says National Championships and nationally sanctioned competition, HOA has adopted this rule for all 12 and Under play
Examples of Legal Volleyballs
Tachikara VolleyLite
Molten VB-U12
Mikasa VUL500
Mikasa MVA-Lite
*-*-*-*-*[/accordion_panel][accordion_panel title=”Officiating Myths and Fallacies”]COMMON MYTHS AND FALLACIES
FALSE 1. If a coach is shadowing (providing instruction) to a junior official, they are permitted to whistle violations.
The coach should not have a whistle!!!
FALSE 2. Only the 2nd referee may whistle net violations.
FALSE 3. A decision cannot be changed if 15 seconds have elapsed
FALSE 4. Touching the top of the net is always a fault.
FALSE 5. As a coach I have the right to question the official’s decision.
FALSE 6. The visual scoreboard can be used as grounds for a protest.
*-*-*-*-*[/accordion_panel][accordion_panel title=”Questionable Officiating Advice”]I just received some officiating advice or instruction that either confuses me or which is questionable. What should I do?
The final authority for all rules interpretations and officiating issues in the Heart of America Region is the Officials Chair.
Please direct any questions or issues to:
Ric Washburn
*-*-*-*-*[/accordion_panel][accordion_panel title=”Head Coach Questions”]This post addresses questions concerning head coaches Including rights and responsibilities of head coaches
1. Can a coach stand and approach the court???
DCR – DCR USAV – DCR pg 128 3.

2. What can the head coach request from the officials?
DCR Time-outs and and substitutions;
DCR USAV 5.2.3: Verify the positions of the teams (lineup Checks)

3. Can the head coach file a protest?
NO!!! Only the game captain. For 14U competition, the head coach also acts as the team/game captain.
DCR 5.1.2 – DCR – USAV
If the protest is incorrectly requested, the matter cannot be addressed and no further recourse is available.

4. Can the head coach address the scorer concerning scoring issues.
NO!!! All issues must be addressed to the 2nd Referee
DCR 5.2.1
As junior coaches we often forget that and address the scorer directly.
We should make every effort to refrain from this.
Additionally, we should instruct our scorekeepers to politely redirect any questions to the 2nd Referee.

*-*-*-*-*[/accordion_panel][accordion_panel title=”Assistant Coach Questions”]This post answers questions about assistant coaches.
1. How many assistant coaches are permitted on a team?
A maximum of 4 assuming no other staff members.
DCR USAV 4.1.1:b

2. Can assistant coaches stand all the time?
YES but only 1 asst may stand up at a given time!!!
DCR USAV 5.3.1

3. Can the asst. coaches talk to the officials?
DCR 5.3.1 – DCR USAV 5.3.1

4. Can an asst. coach replace the head coach.
YES – If the coach is forced to leave and the 1st referee authorizes it
DCR 5.3.2
For junior competition – The assistant must be IMPACT certified.
*-*-*-*-*[/accordion_panel][accordion_panel title=”Junior Warm-Up Protocol”]Exclusive use of the court
DCR USAV 7.2.2b
For junior competition, when one team has exclusive use of the court, the other team must either be at its team bench or out of the playing area.
While not required, HOA is requesting that teams shag for each during the exclusive times
Warming up with balls at the team bench or in the spectator walkways is not permitted.
*-*-*-*-*[/accordion_panel][accordion_panel title=”Scoring Table and Line Judges”]HOA Food, Drink, Electronic Device Policy
This is a reminder that all scorekeeper tables need to be clear of any food and drinks.
Referees, scorers and line judges cannot be using Ipods/mp3 players or cellphones during matches. The coach of the officiating team is responsible that officiating duties are taken seriously and the whole officiating crew is focused on the task at hand.
*-*-*-*-*[/accordion_panel][accordion_panel title=”Do teams switch sides in a deciding set (3rd, 5th, one set playoff)?”]Yes
There is no option on switching sides in USAV.
Switch at 13 in a 25 pt set.
If the set is played with less than 25 pts,
switch when half the points (+1 for odd numbers) have been scored.
Set has 19 pts — Switch after one team has scored 10 pts
Scoreboard started at 6-6 switch at 16
*-*-*-*-*[/accordion_panel][accordion_panel title=”Can my Team be Penalized for our Fan’s Behavior?”]YES!!!
HOA has a Fan Behavior Policy which will be strictly enforced.
Any disruptive fan behavior incidents must be reported to the HOA office,
by the Tournament Director, in writing, within 48 hours.

During a match if the officials determine that a team has (a) disruptive fan(s).
1st Incident
Communicate to the captain or coach that there is disruptive fan behavior which needs to cease immediately.
The official will direct the captain/coach to inform their fan(s) that this behavior needs to cease immediately.
This will be considered the team’s first official warning and is sanctioned as a team delay.
If a team delay has already been issued then this team delay will be a team delay penalty (TYC).
3nd Incident
Strongly encourage the captain/coach to have their disruptive fan(s) leave the gym to avoid further incident.
This is sanctioned as a team delay penalty (TYC) since the 1st incident resulted in a team delay.
3rd Incident
Play is suspended immediately!
The offending team will forfeit this set keeping all points won.
Any remaining sets will be forfeit with the offending team scoring no points.
*-*-*-*-*[/accordion_panel][accordion_panel title=”I am Confused! Which rules do I use?”]1. HOA modifications; 2. USAV modifications; 3. Domestic Competition Regulations;
1. HOA modifications;
For all HOA region play the HOA Modification overrides any other rules.
2. USAV modifications;
In all regions, The USAV modification, if any, overides the DCR
In the USA Volleyball Domestic Competition Regulations (DCR):
A rule is published, which is essentially the FIVB (international) rule.
If USAV modified the rule it will be written immediately following the DCR rule. It is placed in a box and starts USAV…
3. Domestic Competition Regulations;
The Domestic Competition Regulation will be the applicable rule.
*-*-*-*-*[/accordion_panel][accordion_panel title=”Can a player change uniform number during Competition?”]IT DEPENDS
For all Heart of America Region competition
Players may change uniform number between matches of a tournament and must play all games of any given match with the same number.
Exceptions will be made for uniforms soiled with blood.
EX: Player A wears #22 and plays as a normal player in set 1 of the first match.
If player A is to play Libero in game 2, player A must have a contrasting color jersey with #22.
After the first match player A may then switch to any legal number for the next match.
Nationally Sanctioned Events
Nationally sanctioned events require that a player obtain approval from the Championship Committee prior to change uniform number.
*-*-*-*-*[/accordion_panel][accordion_panel title=”Does the 2nd Referee conduct the captain’s meeting?”]NO
This is the responsibility of the 1st Referee not the 2nd Referee.
If there is a deciding set (3 or 5) then the 2nd referee will conduct the coin toss.
*-*-*-*-*[/accordion_panel][accordion_panel title=”Is the point signal used in USAV play?”]NO
The signal is the Team to Serve signal (DCR pg. 93)
If you see anyone signaling with their finger (point) please, in a very nice way, let them know to use the Team to Serve signal
*-*-*-*-*[/accordion_panel][accordion_panel title=”For 14 and Under competition; What is the rule on the toss and drop when serving?“]On every service attempt, a player can drop the ball after the toss one time and will get a re-serve
EX: A player goes to serve. The player tosses the ball and drops it. The player gets a re-serve from the 1st Referee. Now the players serves an ace. The same player gets again to serve and again drops the first toss. The player gets again a re-serve from the 1st Referee.
*-*-*-*-*[/accordion_panel][accordion_panel title=”Does the 2nd Referee repeat (echo) All signals of the 1st Referee?”]The 2nd Referee will repeat (echo) all signals from the 1st Referee
The 2nd Referee does not echo the service beckon;
The 2nd Referee does not echo the signal if the ball is served into the net;